Addestamento Translated by Craig Douglas
(P.85) Part Two
Employment and Training Of Small Units
198. The infantryman must be; daring; a tireless marcher; a good shot.
199. His moral character must reflect: blind trust in his superiors and firm comradeship; a deep feeling of discipline; the certainty of winning, and in the most critical moments of the struggle, the instinct of self preservation.
200. Physical vigour must allow him to easily overcome the crises of the struggle and persist in the effort; and face, with full confidence, danger and hardship.
(P.86) 201. In combat, he is an integral part of the squad in whose sphere he carries out his action. No circumstance in combat can justify his separation from his squad.
He must: when proceeding in broken terrain, when proceeding in cover during lengthy and tiring street movements; when moving in landscape providing little or no cover, move with the maximum possible speed. For shorter streets (when running curved causes lose of speed); locate and determine before movement, the next position to reach where a brief standstill can be taken; When in close proximity to the enemy (especially if in open ground) or when the need arises to go beyond a line of the crest of a hill, advance on all fours; promptly concentrate the centre of fire; only open fire at the given order and after having completed loading weapons; avoid the tendency to cluster or to disperse into formations that are too linear; keep to the same direction, without becoming diverted by the lie of the land; don't let it dissuade or check you from carrying out your own tasks in the immediate vicinity; perform those tasks with orderliness and alacrity thereby enabling better weapons efficiency and protection;
(P.87) Realise, when surprised or attacked, calmness and decisiveness could save the situation, while uncertainty or panic would surely lose it;
Means of avoiding aerial observation: exploit shaded areas; try to avoid projecting own ground shadows; If it is not possible to hide in time, remain stationary whenever the aircraft is overhead, without looking aloft at it.
202. In combat training: observe the most scrupulous silence; give maximum attention to orders and to the signals given by your own commander; perform orders with promptness and decision.
203. The instructor must know that the infantryman performs better through; following your example and common sense; Much depends on instruction being simple, practical and realistic.
204. Training is always unproductive whenever irrelevant instruction is imposed that detracts from the focus of unit solidarity, soldiers will be animated by the tenacity of intention and by the spirit of emulation.
The Rifle Squad
205. The rifle squad is the smallest infantry unit that functions through movement fire and contact.
206. And consists of
a machine-gun section/group
a rifle section/group
207. The machine-gun group can be split off in exceptional circumstances when, because of the terrain or to allow for ample spacing to exist with the adjoining squads, it is convenient to place such groups on the flanks.
208. Formations (Table A):
In line/In fila (fig.1);
The first two formations are to be used only for movement; the last formation is to be used for the execution of fire.
209. Distances and intervals vary in relation to: the form of the terrain and ground cover; the distance to the enemy.
These formations must facilitate movement, make shooting possible, decrease the squad's vulnerability, without damaging the cohesion and command-control of the unit.
210. The formations, the distances, the intervals of advance are altered according to commands and signals.
( With the following commands the formation and pace is changed ( "in single file!/in fila, run! - open order!/ di corsa - aperta, Walking pace! - deploy!/Passo! Spiegata! Machine gun group to the right or left or 1st or 2nd rifle group to the left or right" etc.).
Through signals the formations are made to increase or tighten spaces and distances and it is indicated when and where to begin or continue the next bound - Every other movement is performed by imitation, and initiative.
The squad rejoins the platoon, in close order, by receiving the command <<adunata>> (parade/muster).
211. All movements are performed with the greatest speed and without worrying about alignment.
212. The squad commander regulates the movement of the squad; he directs the machine-gun group's fire; he acts in perfect cohesion with the other squads of the platoon insuring, if necessary, mutual fire support; for the assault or counter-attack.
213. The second in command of the squad is head of the rifle group, and he regulates their movement and fire; assists the squad commander in directing the action of one of the machine-guns if the machine-gun group is divided from the rest of the unit.
214. Fire discipline and effectiveness, the intelligent use of terrain, quick movement, the impetuousness of the assault or of the counter-attack, the tenacious will to attain the objective at any cost, constitute the squad's best guarantee of success.
Tactical Reconnaissance of the Terrain
215. The rifle squad could be called upon to perform the function of a scouting patrol. For such employment, refer to the following note for squad reconnaissance (n.330).
216. The rifle squad could be normally called upon to constitute a surveillance and signaling post (n.55); exceptionally, the rifle squad could be called upon to furnish a security patrol (of normally 4-5 riflemen) to be precise. To assume these functions see notes (n.49 and n.347).
217. The approach phrase begins when the platoon deploys into open formation and the squad, in order to advance, must choose the best cover and the least vulnerable formation.
The movement and direction of the squad (determined from time to time by the commander of platoon), is not tied to alignment or rigidity of spacing and distances.
Short exposed stretches of ground, subject to artillery fire, are traversed in one bound, with all the squad in deployed formation (formazione spiegata).
On the extreme right and left flanks of the deployed squad, the men at the rear of the squad guard the rear and flanks of the unit and maintain visual contact with the adjoining squads.
218. The Squad Commander:
Assumes control of the squad and from time to time maintains and regulates the formation, according to the platoon commander or use of his own initiative; he imposes on his own men order, cohesion, silence; if the terrain is particularly difficult, and forces the excessive closing or widening of spacing or distances, to make provision for these abnormalities, as soon as possible with simple signals or correcting in a low voice, use every device possible to maintain concealment of the march, If subject to aerial observation; if the squad is subject to artillery or machine-gun fire, without halting, adopt a less vulnerable formation (for example, open, or deployed, in the case of squad in line/file); during halts/breaks, continue to keep the squad in any cover you can find in the immediate [ p.92] vicinity with a favorable point for observation, remaining ready to join action in the direction of the assigned objective; in choosing positions for the machine-gun group, select positions that dominates the ground over which the rifle group must move (banks, embankments, etc.); Remain in constant visual contact with the platoon commander; if there is any danger of the use of chemical weapons, ensure that the men carry their own respirator in the "at the ready position" (posizione di allarme) suspended on the breast; in case of casualties (wounded or dead), arrange for the recovery of their equipment, particularly ammunition. With regard to the transport of the wounded use the appropriate personnel; no man of the squad should be employed to this end.
219. In the imminence of an attack the squad commander receives verbal orders from the platoon commander and instructions for the action of the unit.
In Particular: tasks/duties; clearly visible objective, ( normally of the platoon or a part of it); direction (if necessary).
220.The commander must resolve a problem that is fundamental to the success of the action: that is to arrive quickly in greater numbers on the enemy. [ p.93] For this reason: he must orientate himself (determining the centre of attack and the terrain to cross, determining what points of reference of the terrain should be chosen to maintain the direction of the first bound/leap of movement); he decides on the formation to be adopted (machine-gun group re-attached to unit or to operate separately; re-attached to the right or to the left); he moves when signaled by an agreed upon sign.
221. As long as possible the squad continues forward without firing, in long movement bounds, facilitated by artillery fire and accompanying support arms. As soon as the advancing squad must make use of arms, the machine-gun group joins the action.
222. In the employment of the machine-gun group, it is worthwhile to alternate the fire and movement of the two arms.
The rifle group regulates its movement to coincide with the machine-gun group's covering fire, with its main consideration to maintain direction towards the objective, and to carry out the movement bound into cover with the best possible speed.
223. In the face of little active enemy reaction, it could be worthwhile to coordinate the platoon's fire and movement. In this case, while a squad carries out covering fire with the respective machine-gun group, the other advances.
224. Little by little as the distance to the enemy is closed, the movement bounds are shorter and the squad advances in loose groups of men. [ p.94] To assure fire continuity, or to increase the volume of fire, when necessary add the fire of the rifle section to that of the machine-gun section.
225. Closing to 30 or 40 paces from the objective, the riflemen, together with those of the other platoon squads, proceed to throw hand grenades and, to the cry of << Savoia>>, they launch themselves into the assault.
226. The squad commander leads his mens' assault; inspiring the infantrymen to bravery to assure the squad's success, leading his comrades by example.
227. The machine-guns advance to the immediate support of the rifle section/riflemen, as soon as they have ceased fire for safety reasons.
228. When they are unable to reach the objective, the squad must commence supporting fire to assist the advance of adjoining units, and be ready to exploit every favorable circumstance to resume their own advance.
229. In an armour supported attack, the squad follows the armour in deployed formation (formazione spiegata), following the tank that operates to their front. The decisive effect of the armoured assault must be followed through without pause, taking full advantage of the morale and material effect produced by the tanks.
The squad commander must know how to exploit in depth the action of the armour without [ p.95] eliminating all resistance that appears and above all his main task, at the cost of any sacrifice, is to converge on any tank immobilised by damage and to defend it.
230. The fundamental principle: to resist with a few against many.
231. The squad could be deployed: in security zone; in a defensive position.
232. In the zone of security and deployment, initially, in the forward area (L. S.).
The commander, according to received orders, will take steps to: choose the positions for the machine-gun section with the criterion to take action at the greatest possible distance and to concentrate the fire-power of the two arms in order to provide the best conditions for attack; to position the rifle section to cover the gaps.
233. To an enemy initiated attack, the squad carries out the scheduled action of fire, from time to time shifting their fire upon more numerous or threatening groups of the enemy. This action must be conducted with the maximum violence, yet avoiding becoming engaged [ p.96] in a close quarter struggle. Having completed the task of a delaying action, the squad falls back.
234. The withdrawal takes place: by order of the platoon commander; if possible for the squad, on the lines of previously prepared ground and on a fixed direction with the criterion to not hamper the fire of other positions and of the artillery.
235. With successive bounds of movement, continuing their own delaying action, the squad falls back around the defensive position, to their designated place.
236. In the defensive position the squad could constitute: a unit of forward or rear fire.
237. To maximise this fire, in formation: the machine-gun group remains together; the rifle sections are divided into groups, on the flanks, with their particular assignment to cover the gaps between adjacent units of defensive fire.
238. The task of such a fire support unit result from orders that in particular concern, the sectors of action (normally possible) for each machine-gun.; [for example] the methods of joining with other advanced units or flanking units or those opposite; [ p.97] [for example] the direction for instant cessation of fire (shooting at night or with natural or artificial fog); the security measures (picquets or patrols) and the methods of sounding the alarm (conventional signals with artifices etc.).
239. The squad commander: forms the appropriate formation; he carries out with maximum speed the tasks of camouflage, concealment and strengthening of the position which he has been ordered to hold by the platoon commander; he prepares, if necessary, to clear a field of fire; he sets in minute detail on the ground [the means for]the instant cease-fire of each machine gun.; During the enemy attack; he ensures timely intervention, fire discipline, continual observation.
240. The squad second in command:
Assists the squad commander in the positioning of the unit and watching over security [of the position]; he supervises ammunition replenishment.
241.As the enemy attack takes shape:
the units of advanced fire, on the edges of the sector and within the radius of effective fire, take action to their front, hammering the enemy units [which appear] more dangerous or numerous from time to time; the rear fire units add their own fire to that of surrounding units [ p.98] through the means of fixed levels of fire, covering the gaps between the units about to rapidly intervene against enemy elements that have successfully infiltrated.
242. The squad reacts to the enemy assault with hand grenades and the bayonet; if surrounded, the squad holds the position TO THE LAST MAN AND TO THE LAST CARTRIDGE.
243. To face an armour supported attack the squad should: at the moment of the [enemy] break-through, take prompt individual action to evade and to maintain concealment; if that is not possible, [the squad should] take action against [the armour's]tracks, observation slits etc.; as soon as the wave of armour has passed through [the position], resume with maximum force, continuous fire against the attacking enemy infantry.
244. REPLENISHING AMMUNITION.
During combat ammunition replenishment provided to: those men posted to fight and with insufficient ammunition; with direct re-supply (by means of company re-supply), prepared by the commander [responsible for supply], according to the demands of the platoon commanders; in exceptional circumstances, from half of the portable munitions, or with direct withdrawal from the battalion's ammunition stocks[ p.99] or by means of exchange with company supply. In defensive situations, the individual ammunition allocation of each weapon is usually increased.
245. The training of the squad to the fight: is fundamental for the operational output of the larger unit [as a whole]; it should not be considered as a part of the program of education, on the contrary as a substantial activity of the whole course, it should also be progressively inserted into platoon, company and battalion [level] training; and personally overseen by the company commander, in conjunction with subordinate officers and non-commissioned officers; This [aspect of] training must be initiated even before the riflemen have reached a sufficient degree of technical acquaintance with their weaponry and before they have performed any shooting practice.
246.Wide open spaces of terrain aren't essential to squad training; instead they require, the best possible variety of places, environments, and procedures.
247. In every instruction:
a) the enemy (supposed or represented) must be present
through their observation, fire and movement.
b) the action of the squad is always directed toward a reachable objective.
248. Particular care must be taken in the task to make [the men] understand the decisive importance of the continuity of fire in the attack and in making directing instructions to them as simple as possible.
The instructor must insist on the fact that continuity of fire, in the squad, doesn't always mean in any case continuous weapons fire.
249. For the squad, continuity of fire will tell: a weapon in action, able to perform firing [in the most optimum conditions possible], will neutralise a center of enemy fire and help to facilitate the movement of the other units and the rifle group.
250. The instructor must again stress that the shooting of the machine-gun should always be conducted with small bursts of fire, that this fire should immediately cease when the supposed enemy desists from firing or movement.
At the conclusion of training a true automatism in such suspension and resumption of firing must be reached.
251. During instruction, the aircraft alarm must be given frequently and also occasionally, the gas alarm.
252. Reconnaissance and security:
appreciation of terrain, movement and observation (choice of streets offering more cover and, selecting a route which offers] consistent cover) in relation to reaching the objective; survey of various distances to objectives, in varied situations and conditions; estimation of march and halt distances for detachments; reconnoitre isolated and inhabited structures, patches of woodland etc.; behaviour of reconnaissance patrols towards enemy elements of inferior, equal or superior strength; establish a position for the operation of surveillance and signaling in the event of attack on the part of fast mobile elements (cavalry, cyclists, armour etc.); transmission of orders (always in writing).
253. The Approach: choice of formations and alteration of distances and spacing [to be determined]by the varied types of terrain; maintenance of direction [of movement toward the objective] (in the daytime, at night, in fog, in woods); concealment from aerial and land-based observation; training to complete long movement bounds rapidly; immediacy of reaction against surprises on the flanks or rear.
254. Attack: occupation of departure point; movement to begin under enemy fire (use of shelter); choice of positions for the machine-guns; fire discipline and intervention of initiative; continuity and co-ordination of fire and movement; preparation and execution of the assault; organisation of defense of the captured objective; co-operation with armour (exploitation of the action of the armour; defence of the armour); replenishment of ammunition.
Carry out observation and delaying actions in security zone.; maintenance of direction of withdrawal from the security zone. (movement bounds of varied size, some determined by initiative, others scheduled); execution of the task of strengthening counter-fire (deliberately placed individual machine-guns, entrenched, with barbed-wire); disguise and concealment of defenses; rapid change of objective and of machine-gun positions.; Clear orders to ensure a good execution of fire and cease-fire; counter-attack; replenishment of ammunition.
Regulation Manual Translated by Jeff Leser
'Addestramento della Fanteria' volume I Istruzione Formale (individuale e di reparto) dated 1939 - Anno XVIII
Comments by the translator have been added to help clarify aspects of the instructions. These are noted in brackets  and are in addition to the translation.
The use of the title ‘instructor’ in the manual reflects the individual in charge of the group or formation; the one giving the commands.
The present regulations are common to all forces and specialties, as it regards:
a) The dismounted individual instruction:
with the weapons;
b) The instruction of dismounted units in close order.
Accordingly formations changes, movement and suitable commands in Part II will be applied, in analogy, to the corresponding units of the other forces and specialties that does dismounted instruction in closed order, independently from the organic constitution of the their units.
The formal training is not unto a purpose to itself, but it is the more half powerful person to inculcate order and discipline in the individuals and in the masses. When is extended vibrating to this purpose the form is not reduced to simple suit of presentation, but in true substance is transformed for the action.
1. The commander of units - instructor - has to be an example in the observance of the prescribed uniform, of a reserved and martial behavior, and is persuasive and energetic in his words.
The commands, when stationary, are always given while in position of attention.
II. The commands, the positions and the movements that are part of the formal education of the infantry, are those described in the present instruction. All variations or additions are prohibited. You are only allowed to state in advance the unit or the part of the unit that is to perform the command, when this is useful to get their attention. [for example, plotone can be added before adunata to first gain the soldier’s attention, then followed by the command.]
III. All commands must be pronounced in clear tone, holding well that only an energetic command will generate a corresponding energetic execution. When stationary, every command (excluding that of attention and assembly) is to be given [by the instructor] after having assumed the position of attention.
The commands which demand not only not simultaneity but also precision of execution, are divided into two parts: the first part (printed in italics : of warning) has to be above all clear: therefore, you pronounce the entire [warning] with normal tonality; the second (printed in Capital Letters : of execution) you must pronounce stronger, with a high, truncated, and sharp tone of voice.
Between the command of warning and that of execution a brief pause is inserted.
To annul [cancel] a partially given command, the command is:
IV. For the exact understanding of the terminology used in the present instruction, it is provided here.
the rank is constituted by two or more sets of men; one alongside the other;
the file is constituted by two or more sets of men; one behind the other;
interval: is the space between men or between units, measured in the sense of along the front, laterally between the two inside sides [along the rank];
distance: it is the space between men or between units, measured in the sense of the depth, between front and back [between individuals] or between the rear and front [of units][along the interval];
the suitable length of the pace, every pace is equivalent to cm. 75; in marching backwards, it is equivalent to cm. 50;
the word " rifle " is intended to be the Rifle 38; when the bayonet is stated this also means the bayonet-dagger.
Individual Formal Instruction
NORMS AND REGULATION RULES
1. The individual formal instruction must be animated by the same dynamism that gives life to the gymnastics exercises of the soldier.
It is therefore necessary that its execution proceeds at a equivalent pace, and, as far as possible, fused with that of the gymnastic and sporting exercises, of which drawn aside special education, banishing all of this that curtains to stiffen, the individual and to repress the natural ease of our nature.
2. for moral reasons, over that of training, the individual instruction with weapons must almost always begin without weapons and both must be completed to improve to circumstance, so that to give as soon as possible to the soldier individual war likeness.
3. the individual formal instruction is begun, developed and completed by the squad. Every squad should therefore to have a commander and a deputy commander which are able take each other’s place, but must not ever be changed, except cases of absolute necessity.
4. The aforesaid instruction is more effective if the instructor succeeds in [creating] great interest and knows how to motivate his soldiers. [The use of] the moral factors and the instructive method serve the attainment of such purpose.
5. the moral factors consist of motivating and stimulating the proper love and the spirit of emulation, integrated by competitions within the squad, the platoon, the company, etc.
6. a good method of instruction to keep in mind:
what, [rather] to actually teach the criterion one exercise at a time to attain the perfect execution, it is to preferred to gradually get him [the soldier] to such perfection for a whole series of exercises, so to make the instruction more varied and interesting and to maintain the attention of the soldier;
what, to alternate the exercises with pauses of rest or gymnastic play serves to avoid excessive tiredness; but on the other hand the abuse of such pauses can bring to an opposite result to the desired one by causing tiredness of execution; what, the training of long marches is only achieved with a sound concept of progression.
The new soldiers in the army have been going out of the barracks for the first days [on marches]. Progressively you increase: the length of the run, the weight of the field gear, the difficulties of the ground over which he marches or maneuvers.
7. a good instructive method also has to keep in mind that the soldier easily retains what he sees and above all what is required to do.
Consequently a good instructor should:
to accustom his soldiers to learn from imitation by seeing the complete positions and the movements, and adding when brief explanations are necessary, the correct way, expressed with simple words, so it is understood and stays engrained in the mind of the soldier;
to separate the exercise into varied phases, when this is possible, and to progressively teach these phases;
to make every soldier completely perform the exercise, checking, correcting and devoting great attention to the soldiers that are showing less ability to learn;
to then obtain simultaneous performance of the exercise from the whole squad, being capable of [performing] the commands established by the present formal education.
To obtain, and to require, uniform perfection (from the regulations), quickness, loose energy, war likeness and, in the exercises of units, also identical simultaneity of movements.
8. it owes, finally, that the instructor should remember that if more care and improvement is taken during the individual formal education, so much more rapid and perfect will be the formal education of units (close order).
9. The unit in close order must be aligned to the right, without need of specific indication.
They are lined up to the left when the commander orders it.
The commander, especially when dealing with higher units than the company, facilitates the alignment with commands.
The files of the unit must result in the men covering to the front.
POSITION AND MOVEMENTS WITHOUT WEAPONS
10. Position of attention. - The command:
at – Tenti,
To the warning order: the head is empathically lifted; to the execute order, it assumes, with action of release, the position in figures 1, 2, 3.
Look straight ahead and, if possible, fixed your eyes on those in command. Absolute immobility and silence (tightly holding this position for the necessary time).
11. Position of rest. - To return from the position of attention the command is given:
ri – Poso,
he assumes the position in figures 4, 5, 6. The movement can be performed by moving one or the other foot (however without losing the alignment).
During reviews, parades, and ceremonies, absolute silence is sustained.
I. - Individual without arms:
a) from the halt, with head covered.
The salute is started when the superior reaches three paces from the soldier, he assumes the position of attention and emphatically brings the right hand to the visor (or brim) of the headgear, with the ends of the fingers above of the right eye; the hand inline with the forearm, with the palm facing down, the united fingers and brims, the index in contact with the edge of the visor or brim; horizontal upper arm, forearm naturally tilted (figures 7 and 8).
b) from the halt, with head uncovered: with the same formality described in the preceding letter a), he assumes the position of the salute as that in fig. 9;
c) when reporting to a superior: when reporting to a superior, at three paces from him, he [the soldier] stops and assumes the position of attention, salutes and returns to the position of attention. Dismissed by the superior, he takes a backwards step, salutes, returns to the position of attention, then completes an about-face and departs;
d) when marching: the individual soldier, marching, as he reaches three footsteps from the superior, he turns his head with quickness and at the same time he salutes, assuming the position of either figure 10 or 11. One step past the superior, he returns to the normal position.
II – The unit without arms:
The soldier when saluting as part of the squad or larger unit:
a) if from the halt the command given by the instructor:
at – Tenti
with the procedures in n. 10;
b) if marching to the command:
attenti a – Destr (or Sinistr),
given by the instructor.
To the warning order all emphatically lift and contemporarily the head; to that of the execution order, all emphatically turn and simultaneously the face in the direction pointed out, setting in the same moment the right foot to the ground. The arms follow the movement of the body.
The command of execution must be given when the soldiers places the left foot on the ground.
13. Assembly. - The command:
moves to the instructor in a fast run and in silence. If he is at the halt, to face him in a line or in the way he pointed out. If the instructor is marching, follow him with the same pace and the same cadence, positioning himself in the formation as directed.
14. To break ranks. [Dismissed] - Both from the halt and marching (while waking or running), to the command:
Rompete le righe – Marc’
Healthy in the preceding n. 12 a) and b) [whichever is] suitable and to leave the place without noise, remaining in the limits of the area pointed out by the instructor.
15. Alignment. [Dress right] - Every soldier has to acquire the habit to align in line on his companions to the right, and to cover, in his line, on the man in the rank before, without needing to receive either indication.
The commander of the unit facilitates, when it is needed, the alignment, giving, to the troops at attention, the command:
destr (o sinistr) – Riga.
The first man right or left of every line stays immovable; all the others turn the head quickly from the direction pointed out, and watching for signs from the instructor to correct the alignment.
all quickly turn their head forwards, the original direction as before.
16. To advance or to step backwards several steps. – The command to perform such movement is:
Un passo (due….. quattro passi) avanti (o indietro) – Marc’
The steps forward are completed with normal length and cadence: the steps backwards with a smaller length and slower cadence (length M. 0,50 - = cadence 75 for minute).
17. To began marching. – To begin the march the command is:
Avanti – Marc’,
And always stomp left foot to the ground with moderate quickness, and continue with definite and easy footstep, marching as a body, marching erect, head held high. In the first days of [the soldier’s] education, practice the soldiers in the habit of marching with ease, allowing some opportunity for exercises of free "marching" [during] which every soldier marches for practice within a space pointed out by the instructor.
The length of the normal pace is of m. 0,76; for the bersaglieri m. 0,86.
The normal cadence is 120 footsteps to the minute; for the bersaglieri, 140.
To the purpose to make it easier for the soldiers to learn the exact cadence, of line in line they are made to play to the drummers or her/it the gang.
In the first exercises the instructor can also give the cadence counting in time with a loud voice "one - two" [un – due] and demanding that the soldiers step with the left foot on the ground on ‘un’, and with the right foot on ‘due’. While formed in a squad he can control the cadence with the command:
given when the right foot is about to step on the ground; to this command the soldiers stomps the left foot to the ground, and if this noise is not simultaneous, the command is actually repeated to get everyone together [in step].
18. March at a run [quick time].
a) Quick time. - From the stationary, the command
di corsa – Marc',
the movement is begun with the left foot and it is performed in the style prescribed by the “Istrouzione per la ginnastica militare” (Capo V) [Instruction for Military Gymnastics (Chapter V)].
While marching, the run is begun to the command:
di – Corsa.
The normal length of the quick time pace is m. 0,90 to normal cadence of 170 footsteps to the minute. For the bersaglieri it is respectively of m. 1 and of 180 paces to the minute.
b) Run fast. - From the stationary, to the command:
corsa veloce – Marc’,
[the soldier] initiates the movement with the right foot and it is performed him/it with the style prescribed by the “Istrouzione per la ginnastica militare” (Capo V) [Instruction for Military Gymnastics (Chapter V)] so that to reach in the briefest possible time the suitable line as term of the run.
While marching the command is:
19. To stop marching – While marching or running, the command:
squadra (or platone or.....) - Alt
to halt the march with the foot that is lifted at that time from the ground and to bring it together with the other foot beating it to the ground with moderate quickness; simultaneously to move the arms into the position of attention, with a quick movement.
Because this movement is easily performed, it is worthwhile to give the command of execution while the right foot is about to step on the ground.
To stop the fast run is given the command:
and the halt happens without simultaneity.
20. To change the pace.
From the march to the run: [Quick time]
di - Corsa.
From the run to the march: [Forward March]
di - Passo
From the march or the run to the fast run: [Double time]
21. March in place. [Mark time] To momentarily suspend the march without losing the step, the command:
segnate il - Passo.
To this command the soldiers suspend the march and stopping in place, they actually lift alternatively the knees to raise the foot around 20 cms. from the ground, maintaining the same cadence that they had in the march. To begin marching the command prescribed in n. 17 is given with the recommendation to give that command when the right foot steps on the ground. To stop the movement is given the same command prescribed in n. 19.
22. To change the footstep. - The command:
So much to the footstep that in the march of run, it is leaned to earth the foot that be in movement; the other foot immediately been set to contact of the first one and it is recovered march with this: all of this in the time of an alone footstep.
23. Way of regulating the exercises for the run and fast run. - You must train the infantrymen to be in good condition for long runs, alternating the run and the walk, and to perform for brief times a fast run. The necessary progression of this instruction is achieved by increasing bit by bit the length of the run, the weight of the equipment, the difficulties of the ground of the exercise (at first plain, then varied, broken, uneven, and with obstacles).
24. Movement of about face. - The command:
a) from the halt: it is completed with a quick half turn to the left on the toe of the right foot and on the left heel, then the right foot is moved forward to join the left returning to the position of attention:
b) while marching: (walking or running): it is completed with a quick half turn to right, on the toes of the feet, with the left foot in front of the right foot, and the march is continued in the opposite direction.
To make easier such movement it is worthwhile to give the command of execution while the right foot is about to step on the ground.
25. Movement to the flank and to the front. - The command:
fianco destr (o sinistr) - Destr (or Sinistr):
a) from the halt: it is completed quickly to the right with a quarter of a turn (or to the left), on the right heel (or left) and on the point of the left foot (or right); the forward foot is return to the rearward foot, returning to the position of attention;
b) while marching: (walking or running) it is completed quickly to the right with a quarter of turn (or to the left) on the point of the foot that is forward when the command of execution is heard, and the march is continued in the new direction.
To return facing forward from the flank:
destr (or sinistr) - Front.
This movement, from the halt as in the march, is performed in the same way pointed out for that of the flank.
POSITION AND MOVEMENTS WITH WEAPONS
26. The movements with the rifle (or with the carbine) must be performed with quickness and energy; the body has to remain in the correct position and not follow the movements of the arms.
27. The commands for the movements and the positions with the weapon, when the unit is armed with rifles, carbines and rifles mod. 91, must be given [as if the entire unit is equipped with] the rifle, keeping in mind that for those armed with rifle 91, they will ground arms when the order fianc’arm [order arms] is said for the rifle and carbine.
28. Simultaneity and the precision are the essential characteristics of the movements and positions with the weapons. They are not considerations in the following [movements]:
to inastare or levate [fix or raise] the bayonet, while stationary;
from fianc'arm (or pied'arm) [order arms] to presentat'arm [present arms] and vice-versa;
from fianc'arm (or pied'arm) [order arms] to spall'arm [shoulder arms] and vice-versa.
At the start of the instruction the more complex movements must be separated into steps so that the soldiers can easily learn perform them with simultaneity and precision.
For the bilanc'arm movements - bracc'arm - tracoll'arm, to spall'arm (and vice-versa) quickness is essentially required rather than simultaneity and precision.
29. The facing movements [fianc and front] described in n. 25, without weapons, they are executed the same with the weapons: the soldier however, if marching to bilanc'arm, it owes, to the command of warning, to straighten the weapon bringing beside her to lead with the right adherent elbow and to hardly bring not her to bilanc'arm completed the movement; if I stop armed with rifle or musket, it performs the movement holding the weapon to fianc'arm; if armed with rifle 91, to pied'arm, it has to slightly lift the kick of the rifle so that not to make to crawl him/it for earth.
30. To ground or to recover equipment and the weapons. - Whenever is decided necessary and opportune to ground or to recover the [soldier’s] equipment or weapons, the commands are:
Material a terra; o materiali in spalla;
lasciate le armi, o ripigliate le armi.
When placing the weapons on the ground (or on the grounded equipment) take care of not to damage [the weapon], specifically the sights.
31. Position of attenti [attention] (fianc'arm with the rifle and carbine and pied'arm with the rifle 91).
Command and execution, as for the position of attention without weapon, assuming the position of which to the figs. 12, 13, 14, 15 and 16 and if at tracoll'arm (sling arms) as in the fig. 52.
32. Position of riposo [rest]: command and execution as for the position of riposo without arms.
On order they are assumed the position shown in figs. 17 and 18, and, if at tracoll'arm (sling arms) as that of the fig. 53.
33. Individual Salute with the arms:
a) from the stationary position: with the same formalities as explained in letter a) of the n. 12 [the soldier] assumes the position of attenti, swiftly bringing the left hand to the weapon, as it appears in figs. 19 and 20;
b) in reporting to a superior: [once the soldier] reaches three footsteps from the superior he comes to fianc'arm or pied'arm and then completes the same movement described in the salute without weapon in the same manner as in the preceding letter a).
If the rifle (or carbine) is at tracoll'arm (sling arms), the salute consists of assuming the position shown in fig. 52;
c) in march: it is worth how much he has been told the n. 12 d) for the regard in march without weapon, with the it doesn't change position and the right arm, or it stands up same weapon (spall'arm -bracc'arm - bilanc'arm), or it favors the movement of the body (tracoll'arm).
34. To break ranks [fall out]. – From stationary or in march, the command:
Rompete la righe -Marc,
healthy in the suitable way to the preceding number and to leave the place without cackle, remaining in the limits of space pointed out by the instructor.
35. To fix or raise the bayonet. - The bayonets are fixed (or unsheathed) from any position and carry of the weapons, both from the stationary and in march, except when in the position of presentat'arm.
a) while stationary: those armed with rifle or the carbine mod. 91, bring the left hand to the button or the lock of the bayonet (figures 21 and 22), then press it and lower [the blade], then they rotate the bayonet upwards (figures 23 and 24), while shouting: " Savoia ", and then they lock it downwards.
Once completed, they take the position of fianc'arm.
Those armed with carbine mod. 91 T.S. bring the weapon vertically in front of the right eye and grasp it with the left hand as in the fig. 25; with the right hand they unsheathe the bayonet and bring it aloft vertically with a straight arm while shouting: " Savoia " (fig. 26), then affix it and then return immediately the position of fianc'arm.
With the rifle mod. 91, the command is clearly given in three separate steps: " ba ...ionet ...ta."
Ba: to push the mouth of the weapon in before holding I stop the kick to earth: with the left hand to grasp the weapon under the cigarette holder (fig. 27);
Ionet: with the right hand unsheathe the bayonet and bring aloft vertically to a straight arm shouting: " Savoia " (fig. 28).
Ta: to fix the bayonet (fig.29) and immediately to return in the position of pied'arm.
b) while moving, [with] any type of weapon, [the bayonet] is unsheathed or bayonet is released with the left hand and is fixed with the maximum quickness, the tempo varying, but uniformly, onto its position on the weapon.
In march to bilanc'arm with several ranks, the infantrymen of the following ranks behind the first debbono to hold the weapon with the point of the lifted bayonet, so that to avoid any danger of injury to the companions that are in front [of them].
To remove the bayonet the command,:
with the rifle or the carbine the movements are the reverse to those sopradescrittis are appeared (figures 30 and 31);
with the rifle mod. 91 the command is given clearly in three separate steps:
" LE ...VA...TE."
To the commands:
LE: to push the mouth of the weapon in before holding I stop the kick to earth: with the left hand to grasp the weapon under the cigarette holder (fig. 29);
VA: to remove with the right hand the bayonet and to bring it vertically aloft with a straight arm (fig. 32);
TE: to put again the bayonet in the sheath doing her/it pass among the left arm and the body (fig.27): immediately to take back the position of pied’arm passing the left arm close to the body.
36. Position of presentat'arm [present arms]. - The regard with the presentat'arms him purchases (with the bayonet first fixed) from the position of fianc'arm or pied'arm, in two steps; the command:
Presentat’' - Arm:
a) with the rifle or the carbine:
1° step: bring the weapon with the right hand lead in correspondence of the right eye, reed back, nick of aim or I lift to 10 cms. You give body (fig. 33, 34, 37); to vivaciously grasp her/it and emphatically with the left hand with the thumb along the stem and the other united fingers and you fold up in transverse, the horizontal left forearm with the narrow elbow to the body (figures 34 and 35).
2° step: to turn the right hand holding the weapon to the hilt, thumb behind the box and the other fingers before, reunited and slightly you fold up: rifle or vertical musket, the arms right naturally extended (figures 36 and 37);
b) with the rifle mod. 91:
1° step: lift the rifle with the right hand, grasping it under and against the wrapper with shirt: to bring it to lead in front of the right eye, reed back I lift him to 10 centimeters from the body, (fig.38); to vivaciously grasp it and emphatically with the left hand to grasp the weapon with the thumb along the stem and the other united fingers and you fold up in transverse so that the little finger corresponds to the superior extremity of the I lift: the horizontal left forearm, the narrow elbow to the body (fig.39);
2° step: to bring with vivacity the right hand to the hilt: to tighten back her with the thumb, under and against the button of the bolt and with the other fingers before united and slightly you fold up: vertical rifle: the right arm must naturally be holds extended (figure 37 and 40).
To return to fianc'arm or pied'arm, the movement is performed in three steps; to the command:
Fianco’ –Arm (o pied –Arm):
a) with the rifle or the carbine:
1° step: to tear off the right hand from the weapon bringing her/it to 10 cms. in out (fig. 41) and to vivaciously grasp the weapon as to the fianc'arm;
2° step: to bring beside the weapon accompanying her/it with the left hand, united fingers and expanses, horizontal forearm (fig. 42);
3° step: to return in the position I give careful passing the arm left rasente to the body.
b) with the rifle mod. 91:
1° step: to tear off the right hand vivaciously grasping the weapon under and against the wrapper with shirt; opposite thumb to the other united fingers and you fold up (fig. 39).
2° step: to bring beside the rifle right with the thumb of the right hand against the buttock, the hand left expanse, horizontal forearm, accompanies the movement of the weapon (fig. 43);
3° step: to take back the position of pied'arm stretching the right arm and lowering with vivacity the left arm doing him/it pass rasente to the body.
37. Position of bilanc'arm. -from fianc’arm (or pied'arm) the command:
Bilanc' - Arm;
a) with the rifle or the carbine: to make to rotate the weapon in before supporting her/it with the the left hand under the cigarette holder (fig. 44), to grasp her/it with the right hand - thumb above and the other fingers under the stem to the height of the mobile breech, so that the weapon is horizontal, reed in other - extended arm naturally and to bring the left arm in the position of careful (fig. 45);
b) with the rifle mod. 91: to make to jump the rifle in the right hand and to assume the position of which to the figure 46; extended arm naturally, without effort.
From bilanc'arm the command:
fianc' - Arm (or pied' - Arm):
a) with the rifle or with the musket: to straighten him/it to lead with the right hand; to grasp him/it with the left hand under the wrapper with shirt (fig. 47); to pick him/it up with the right hand to the hilt and to bring him/it in the position of fianc'arm;
b) with the rifle mod. 91: to straighten him/it to lead with the right hand leaving him/it to flow in the same one, and to take a stand of careful.
The soldier while marching in bilanc'arm, on the command of:
he takes, without any other command, the position of fianc'arm (or pied'arm) as his right foot approaches his left one.
The two steps to come to fianc'arm (or pied'arm) are performed to the pace of the footsteps.
While marching in the position of bilanc'arm the weapon can be passed to that of bracc'arm, tracoll'arm, spall'arm.
38. Position of bracc'arm [right shoulder sling arms] - From fianc'arm (or pied'arm) or from bilanc'arm in march, to the command
a) with the rifle or with the musket: to lift it as appears in the fig. 48, to bring it with the left hand; with vivacious movement, on the right shoulder (figures 49 and 50);
b) with the rifle mod. 91: to lift it as appears in the figure 51 and to complete the following movement as for the rifle or musket;
c) the soldier in fianc'arm (or pied'arm) that it order to march takes, without command, the position of bilanc'arm, completing the movement simultaneously with the first footstep.
fianc'-Arm (or pied'-Arm);
a) with the rifle or with the musket: with the right hand to the hilt and with the left to the strap near the superior shirt, to remove him/it from the shoulder as it appears from the fig. 49; to unthread the right arm from under the strap and grasped the rifle or the musket to the hilt, to bring him/it to the fianc assuming the position you make an attempt;
b) with the rifle mod. 91: with the same movement of the letter to) to bring the pied'arm rifle assuming the position of careful;
c) the soldier in bracc'arm while marching, the command of halt, he takes, without attending other command, the position of fianc'arm (or pied'arm).
In march from the position of bracc'arm you/he/she can be passed to that of Bilanc'arm, tracoll'arm or spall'arm.
39. Position of tracoll'arm [sling arms across back]. - From fianc'arm (or pied'arm), bilanc'arm, bracc'arm, spall'arm to the command of:
The rifle or the musket it is prepared to bandoleer, as from fig. 52.
Such position can also be assumed in the following cases:
in bicycle or in motorcycle when the weapon is not held in special custody;
in the departments with salmerie, when him debbono to load oscaricare the weapons and the materials;
in the special service of driver or relay race;
in to overcome obstacles of country that requires the free use of the two arms.
The position of tracoll'arm is preserved both during the rest (fig. 53) both to the command of halt when him it is in march.
40. Position of spall'arm:
to) from fianc'arm (or pied'arm) it is passed to spall'arm (1), to the command:
with the rifle or with the musket (three times):
1° time: to make to jump the weapon, upsetting it in the left hand that grabs it as from fig. 54; then the right hand grasps it as it appears from the fig. 55;
2° time: to support the weapon to the right shoulder making to flow the left hand until above the handlebar in way results as from fig. 56;
3° time: to take a stand of attention.
with the rifle 91: the same movements are completed described for the rifle or musket.
It is returned in the primitive position to the command:
fianc'- Arm (or pied'- Arm):
with the rifle or with the musket (three times):
1° time: to bring the rifle in the position of 1° spall'arm time fainc'arm, fig. 54, doing him/it go down in front of the corps;
2° time: to grasp him/it with the right hand as to fianc'arm and to bring beside it with vivacity, reed back, accompanying him/it with the hand left expanse near the cigarette holder;
3° time: to assume the position of careful;
with the rifle 91:
1° time: as for the rifle or musket;
2° time: to grasp him/it with the right hand as it appears from the fig. 57, to bring beside it right accompanying him/it, toward the corps, with the hand left expanse and the horizontal left forearm; 3° time: to stretch the right arm to take a stand of careful.
b) from bilanc'arm - bracc'arm - tracoll'arm has passed to spall'arm to the command,:
The movement is performed completing with the maximum quickness all the necessary movements to bring the weapon from the position of bilanc'arm or bracc'arm or tracoll'arm to the position of the 1° time of the spall'arm, for then to bring it on the shoulder without the subdivision in times.
c) from spall'arm it is passed to bilanc'arm - bracc'arm - tracoll'arm, to the command:
same movement of the 1° fianc'arm time is completed spall'arm (or pied'arm) and poscia with the maximum quickness weapon is gone to bilanc'arm - or to bracc'arm - or to tracoll'arm.
d) the soldier in march to spall'arm to the command of Atl is stopped remaining in the position of spall'arm;
it comes to fianc'arm or pied'arm with special command.
For the sfilamento in parade to follow to the procedures of the "Regulations for reviews and parades”
For this position, which is assumed to always be executed while stationary, it is necessary to fix the bayonet before giving the command of presentat'arm.